Engineering von Dienstleistungssystemen für nutzergenerierte Dienstleistungen
Dienstleistungen „von Nutzern für Nutzer“ für wirksamere Softwareeinführungen



Grotherr, C., Semmann, M. & Böhmann, T. (2018) 
Using Microfoundations of Value Co-Creation to Guide Service Systems Design – A Multilevel Design Framework
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), San Francisco, CA, USA

Service systems enable value co-creation. However, value co-creation is a complex phenomenon that is difficult to observe, let alone to purposefully enact. This is a serious challenge for the design of service systems. To address this challenge, we propose a multilevel design framework for service systems, which builds on actor engagement as a microfoundation of value co-creation. Based on this work, we conceptualize a design framework, which emphasizes (1) a multilevel perspective to understand interdependencies between the institutional set-up on macro level, engagement platforms as facilitators for resource mobilization and integration on meso level and observable ac-tor engagement on micro level as well as (2) a dynamic perspective through two iterative design cycles to continuously refine service systems. We illustrate how this multilevel framework informs and guides service research and practitioner in a systematic design process, thereby contributing to service systems engineering.

Böhmann, T., Leimeister, J. M. & Möslein, K. (2018) 
The New Frontiers of Service Systems Engineering
Business & Information Systems Engineering 60(5): 373-375

Grotherr, C., Semmann, M. & Böhmann, T. (2018) 
Engaging Users to Co-Create – Implications for Service Systems Design by Evaluating an Engagement Platform
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa Village, Hawaii, USA

Far-reaching digitalization affords significantly more opportunities for engaging actors and mobilizing resources in service systems. By leveraging these capabilities, digitally enabled service systems can facilitate user-generated services. Traditional service engineering approaches provide for such service systems. This paper presents and discusses the evaluation of a field-based design science research project for designing an engagement platform that facilitates the co-creation of user-generated services. This study reports contributions to the design knowledge of such an engagement platform and their consequences for engagement activities. Based on the evaluation, we propose design propositions for such an engagement platform from a sociotechnical perspective.


Ernst, S. -J.; Janson, A.; Peters, C. & Leimeister, J. M. (2017)
Understanding IT-Culture Conflicts to Drive Successful Technochange Projects – a Case Study
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea

The introduction of new information systems oftentimes requires organizational changes to realize improvements in a company’s performance. Still, many attempts to bring such technology driven organizational change (i.e., technochange) into practice fail. In this regard, cultural misfits are described to be a decisive cause for organizations’ resistance to change. With this paper, we outline our case study approach of investigating culture caused misfits in technochange projects using the theory of IT-culture conflicts. By ascribing cultural values to IT, we will identify potential cultural misfits concerning IT in a comprehensive and theory guided way. Based on insights we gain from a case study conducted during a Customer Relationship Management system integration in the energy sector, we will provide guidance on how to overcome cultural misfits in technochange projects as a practical contribution. As a theoretical contribution, we contribute to the exploration of culture and its influence on organizational outcomes in technochange.

Hamburg Port Authority (2017) 
Projekt ExTEND – Neue Software ohne Frust
Hamburg Port Authority Mitarbeitermagazin Wellengang Oktober 2017

Janson, A.; Söllner, M. & Leimeister, J. M. (2017)
The Impact of Procedural Scaffolding on Mobile Learning Outcomes
Academy of Management Annual Meeting (AOM), Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Mobile learning, offering anytime and anywhere learning, is becoming increasingly im-portant in various areas such as the training of blue-collar workers in organizations. However, mobile learning may overwhelm the learner since it is often used in rich physical environments and demands a high self-regulated learning ability. Therefore, research suggests the use of procedural scaffolds to guide the learner and to enhance learning outcomes. To investigate how different procedural scaffolds contribute to learning outcomes, we conducted a between-subject quasi-experiment with 333 Chinese blue-collar workers. Our results show that comprehensive tutorials at the beginning of the learning process have a positive influence on learning outcomes in contrast to instructional overlays during the learning process as well as a combination of both scaffolds. Consequently, we did not observe that procedural scaffolds per se have a positive impact on learning outcomes, but the right scaffold in the right context has the potential to increase learning outcomes.

Janson, A.; Söllner, M. & Leimeister, J. M. (2017)
Individual Appropriation of Learning Management Systems—Antecedents and Consequences
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (9:3), pp. 173-201

IT support in the learning process constitutes a key factor for the success of innovative teaching/learning scenarios. To ensure learning success in innovative teaching/learning scenarios, learners need to faithfully apply learning management systems (LMS). However, we lack theoretical insights into which factors affect whether they do so. To help solve this issue, we first used adaptive structuration theory to identify antecedents and consequences regarding faithful LMS appropriation and embed them into a theoretical model. Second, we conducted a survey study with 173 participants to evaluate the model. The results show that the perceived IT support, interactivity, and the task-technology fit significantly affect the degree to which learners faithfully apply a LMS. Moreover, the results indicate that faithful appropriation is a significant indicator of the learning process satisfaction as well as perceived learning success. The present paper thus theoretically contributes to the scientific discussion concerning technology-mediated learning processes while also making a practical contribution by deriving implications for LMS application.

Janson, A. & Söllner, M. (2017)
How Technology-Enhanced Scaffolding Contributes to Problem-Solving Outcomes in Management Education
Academy of Management Annual Meeting (AOM), Atlanta, Georgia, USA

IT support is a key factor for the success of innovative teaching/learning approaches such as flipped classrooms concerned with problem solving. However, IT and the complexity of problem solving may overwhelm the learner and can lead to unsatisfying learning outcomes. Therefore, research suggests the implementation of technology-enhanced scaffolds to guide the learners in their individual problem-solving process to enhance their learning outcomes. To investigate how scaffolding contributes to the learning outcomes in a flipped classroom, we first developed a theoretical model based on adaptive structuration and cognitive load theory. Second, to evaluate the model, we conducted a fully randomized between-subject experiment with 72 students in a flipped classroom for management education focusing on individual problem solving. For this purpose, we accordingly implemented technology-enhanced scaffolds in an LMS, which focused on individual problem-solving activities. Our results show that technology-enhanced scaffolding contributes significantly to the management of cognitive load as well as to learning process satisfaction and problem-solving learning outcomes. In addition, the faithfulness of appropriation and germane load contribute to problem-solving learning outcomes. Therefore, we contribute to both theory and practice by providing a better understanding of technology-enhanced scaffolds and their design to en-gage problem solving and their respective effects.

Krawitz, N., Kogga, D., Cevik, F., Brandau, S., Li, M. M., Janson, A. & Peters, C. (2017)
Design Prinzipien für Microlearning Crowdsourcing-Systeme – Konzept für audiovisuelle Mediengestaltung
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung von Designanforderungen und Designprinzipien und Gestaltungsrichtlinien für die audiovisuelle Kommunikation auf Crowdsourcing-Plattformen. Zur Identifizierung bestehender Probleme in der Praxis, wurde eine Prozessanalyse der Kommunikation auf einer Crowdsourcing-Plattformen analysiert, sowie durch Nutzer-Interviews Probleme bei der Kommunikation ermittelt. Um das identifizierte Problem zu verstehen, wurden mit Hilfe der Cognitive Load Theory drei Designanforderungen ermittelt. Daraufhin wurden nach den Prinzipien der Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning die Design Prinzipien und die Gestaltungsrichtlinien zur audiovisuellen Kommunikation entwickelt. Basierend auf den Erkenntnissen dieser Arbeit, kann eine weitere wissenschaftliche Beschäftigung mit computervermittelter Kommunikation, speziell auf Crowdsourcing Plattformen, und der Evaluation der vorliegenden Ergebnisse erfolgen.

Li, M. M.; Peters, C. & Leimeister, J. M. (2017)
Designing a peer-based support system to support shakedown
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea

Many problems of software implementations appear after roll-out during the shakedown phase. Research have shown that peer advice ties are more effective and preferred by users than traditional IT support structures. However, large organizations are often shrouded in anonymity and individuals often don’t know which peer to ask for advice, resorting to help desks as a last resort. The paper addresses the challenges of peer advice ties as support structure by presenting a peer-based support system (PBSS) design to address emerging problems of individuals during shakedown. By applying design science research and theory of interaction as explanatory theory for peer advice to derive design requirements. Based on the informational, timeliness and contextual advantages of peer advice ties, we develop tentative design principles, which aids in identifying and creating interaction among peers. The contribution lies in prescriptive knowledge on how systems should be designed to support peer advice as support structures.

Schöbel, S.; Ernst, S. -J.; Söllner, M. & Leimeister, J. M. (2017)
More than the Sum of its Parts – Towards Identifying Preferred Game Design Element Combinations in Learning Management Systems
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea

Gamification refers to the use and combination of game design elements in a non-entertainment-based context. Despite the preliminary success of gamification, nowadays the concept faces some criticism. Most gamification projects do not consider context characteristics and implement elements without considering user needs. This can be observed in the inconsistent combination of elements and the varying results of research studies. Consequently, we aim to identify which element combinations users of learning management systems prefer. To achieve our goal, we plan to use a conjoint analysis which allows us to evaluate different element combinations. Based on our results, we expect to better understand the meaning of elements, and therefore, how gamification motivates users. As a practical contribution, we provide insights on how to combine elements against the backdrop of user preferences and context characteristics. Our theoretical contribution is to be able to explain users’ motivational structures by analyzing specific elements and combinations.

Semmann, M. & Grotherr, C. (2017)
How to Empower Users for Co-Creation – Conceptualizing an Engagement Platform for Benefits Realization
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Organizations invest huge portions of their budget in IT with the goal to realize benefits as improving work practice and establishing new processes. To achieve this goal, users are engaged throughout projects by various methods and approaches. Nevertheless, after the completion of a project, users lack power and opportunities to further realize benefits and thus assuring the overall success of a project. To close this gap, we present the concept of an engagement platform that empowers users collectively to induce change initiatives that enhances the realization of benefits in the post-project phase. By doing so, benefits management practices undergo a paradigm shift from recent top-down management towards bottom-up realization of benefits. This change in perspective also incorporates a service systems perspective as it focusses on the dynamic configuration of actors and resources to enable value creation in a complex context.


Ernst, S.-J., Janson, A., Li, M. M., Peters, C. & Söllner, M. (2016)
IT-Kulturkonflikttheorie und ihre Bedeutung für erfolgreiches Service Systems Engineering – Fallstudie eines Einführungsprojektes für mobile Lernanwendungen in China 
Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI), Ilmenau

Mobiles Lernen ist eine Möglichkeit in Lernumgebungen, welche durch eine hohe Anzahl an Lernenden geprägt sind, praktische Trainings zu unterstützen. Bei der Einführung einer mobilen Lernanwendung in ein bestehendes Servicesystem sind die bestehenden Servicesystemkontexte zu berücksichtigen, da vorhandene Wertvorstellungen in Konflikt mit Werten, die dem neuen Service entgegengebracht werden, treten können. Um diesen Konflikten entgegenzutreten, werden im folgenden Beitrag unter Einbeziehen der IT-Kulturkonflikttheorie potentielle Systemkonflikte am Beispiel eines Einführungsprojekts einer mobilen Lernanwendung an chinesischen Berufsschulen identifiziert. Es wird aufgezeigt, wie die IT-Kulturkonflikttheorie bei der systematischen Gestaltung von Services von Nutzen sein kann und wie Services konform dem vorhandenen Servicesystem bereitgestellt werden können.

Li, M. M., Peters, C. & Leimeister, J. M. (2016)
Digitale Service-Systeme. In: Digitale Transformation im Unternehmen gestalten 
Hrsg./Editors: Gassmann, O. & Sutter, P. Verlag/Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag, München.
Erscheinungsjahr/Year: 2016. Seiten/Pages: 29-38.

Dieses Werk zeigt, wie Sie den digitalen Wandel aktiv gestalten, Chancen nutzen und die digitale Transformation gewinnbringend meistern!

– Digitale Geschäftsmodelle erfolgreich und nachhaltig entwickeln
– Erfolgsfaktoren, Fähigkeiten und Potenziale bei der Führung von Digitalisierungsprojekten
– Möglichkeiten durch intelligente, vernetzte Produkte und das Internet of Things
– Von Big Data zu Smart Data
– Mit E-Book inside

Digitalisierung hat sich rapide vom Schlagwort zum strategischen Wettbewerbsfaktor entwickelt. Auch wenn die digitale Transformation alle Branchen in unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit erfasst, kann sich keine Industrie dieser Entwicklung entziehen. Um wettbewerbsfähig zu bleiben, müssen Unternehmen den digitalen Wandel aktiv gestalten und entstehende Chancen nutzen. Die Gestaltung der digitalen Transformation betrifft dabei nicht nur IT-Verantwortliche, sondern ist Aufgabe des gesamten Unternehmens.
Führende Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Unternehmenspraxis zeigen anhand von konzeptionell-strategischen Beiträgen und Fallstudien aus allen Bereichen, wie die digitale Transformation erfolgreich gestaltet und konkret umgesetzt werden kann. Handlungsanweisungen, Checklisten, Erfolgsfaktoren aber auch Hürden erleichtern den Transfer in die Praxis.

Li, M. M. & Peters, C. (2016) 
Mastering Shakedown Through The User: The Need for User-Generated Services In Techno Change 
Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Istanbul, Turkey

Turning IT -investments into organizational benefits is one of the key research objectives for information systems. There is a significant body of knowledge dealing with research on system development and management approaches. However, by leveraging crowd mechanisms, we believe that from a service systems perspective, after the rollout (also called shakedown phase) organizations still require active involvement by end-users in order to create IT-impacts and ultimately enhance organizational performance. We follow a design science research approach and suggest integrating usergenerated services into an existing service system. Our artifact will hence consist of design requirements and design principles, which we will validate in our future work through two hermeneutic circles, in which users are given the means to identify existing problems and create their own fitting solutions. The focus of this research-in-progress paper lies on identifying design requirements that address the challenge of motivating users to create and use user-generated services. Our first step of developing design requirements and preliminary results are based on a brief literature review to identify existing motivational factors and incentives from the software implementation literature, which is the basis for our design requirement for user-generated services. Our theoretical contribution lies both in showing the potential of user-generated services for the shake-down phase for techno change projects and providing a first tentative motivational design requirement for a service system that enables user-generated service in the context of the shakedown phase.

Ernst, S.-J., Janson, A., Söllner, M. & Leimeister, J. M. (2016)
It’s about Understanding Each Other’s Culture – Improving the Outcomes of Mobile Learning by Avoiding Culture Conflicts 
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

Mobile learning enables learners to integrate learning activities into daily routines. Information systems research emphasizes that technology-mediated learning (TML) has to be adapted to cultural differences. Integrating a mobile learning application into a new context can cause conflicts as values embedded in the mobile learning application can conflict with values of the context in which it is introduced. With this paper, we propose a theory-driven design approach to avoid culture conflicts in mobile learning. Based on the implementation of a mobile learning application in Chinese vocational schools, we derive requirements from IT-culture conflict theory as well as practice, which are addressed with design elements and implemented in the application. Our results show that cultural adaptation leads to improved cognitive learning outcomes. As a practical contribution, we provide guidance on how to overcome culture conflicts; as a theoretical contribution, we contribute to the exploration of culture in the usage of TML.

Schymanietz, M., & Agarwal, N. (2016) 
User Generated Services during Software Introductions 
Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Galway, Ireland

In this paper, we describe the lack of user participation and involvement during software introductions. Especially big projects with a volume larger than 10 million US$ are very likely to neglect important benchmarks like e.g. the budget or even completely fail. To fight these costly failures and support software introductions, we propose a service system that integrates the user into the software rollout. This service system consists of three service modules that are supported by components for feedback, communication, user incentives and motivation as well as. The service modules shall empower the users to give support and deliver tutorials or training to other users and furthermore establish a project specific platform which encourages a continuous improvement of the current software solution.


Semmann, M. & Böhmann, T. (2015) 
Post-Project Benefits Management in Large Organizations – Insights of a Qualitative Study
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, USA

In the last decades corporate investments in IT constantly increased and became a substantial part of business investments. Thus, researchers have sought to understand the effects of these investments and the practices that lead to more effective investment into IT. One stream of this research focuses on explicitly managing benefits. It links into IT investment appraisals as well as into IT project management with an emphasis on the latter. Extant research of benefits management focuses on the benefits-driven chartering and execution of IT projects. Thus, this research does not address benefits-related effects of the usage phase of IT investments, foregoing the opportunity of managing benefits based on the realization planned and emerging work practices over time. Against this background, this paper aims identifying the current state of benefits management and derives implications for post-project benefits management based on a qualitative study with eleven IT executives (mostly CIOs).